What machines are needed to cut metal parts?

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Before knowing which are the machines to cut metal pieces, it should be taken into account that metals are very abundant elements and that they are mostly in solid state, these have as their main characteristic that they are excellent conductors of heat and electricity. electricity, adding to this that they are largely ductile, this means that they are elements that have the ability to be molded very easily, in other words, they are malleable materials.

By having this last quality, metals are widely used in the manufacture of objects, which take advantage of the conduction and resistance properties of the element.

It is understood that there are different types of metals, and that there are specialized machines to cut each variety of metal, which we will learn about later.

What is needed to cut metal?

As explained above, there are different types of metals, and although two main qualities are common to all metals, they are somewhat different in their physical characteristics, finding us with very hard metals, others with elements that make them thinner, and even some very thick but soft, which cannot be cut with the same tool or machine that cuts a thin metal such as aluminum. This is where, before cutting a metal, it is necessary to know what type of metal we are going to cut so that the machine gives us the greatest optimization of the element.

We already know then what metals are and what must be taken into account to cut a metal. Next, we will list the types of machines used for metal cutting.

1. Machines and cuts based on thermal processes or temperature

These machines are characterized because they use in their principles fusions and reactions of elements such as gases and thermal processes of temperature increase to cut the desired metal.

plasma machine cutting

This type of cut consists of an electric discharge which combines plasma with oxygen, hydrogen, argon or a combination of them, is transmitted through a small nozzle located in a cutting torch, which with the help of An increase in temperature emanating from the electrical discharge causes the plasma to become hot enough to result in melting of the metal.

Plasma cutting is mainly used for conductive metals such as copper, aluminum or steel.

Cut by oxygen fuel machine

They are machines in which an increase in temperature is generated in the metal, generating an oxidation reaction, which ends with an abundant jet of oxygen whose function is to separate the oxidized metal, resulting in a cut. This type of cutting system is better known in the industries as flame cutting.

We must emphasize that these machines are used to cut low-alloy metals, such as aluminum or carbon steel.

Laser Cutting Machines

These machines consist of a great concentration of energy, in this case light, increasing the temperature of the metal, this causes the material to melt and begin to evaporate, this is when the laser begins to produce the cut by means of direction. They are the most sophisticated machines for cutting metal, since they can be controlled through programs to give precise cuts in perfect and complex shapes, with time performance, electrical savings, ending with an excellent finish on the metal, in addition to having with a long useful life.

It is widely used in steels until they range from low millimeter measurements, up to a maximum of 25 mm in steel, aluminum, titanium, copper, precious and coated metals.

2. Water-based cutting machines

The speed in this type of machine is the main quality, since, taken to its maximum power, they make a harmless jet of water cut large amounts of metal in optimal time.

water jet machines

Water jet machines are used in metals or processes in which their finishes cannot be affected by heat, it consists of a powerful and fine jet of water that is expelled at high speed which, in contact with the metal, begins to generate a cut. Just like laser cutting machines, water jet machines can be programmed to have a finer cut.

To have optimal cuts and final pieces in these machines, it is enough with a correct location of the metal sheets to be cut.

3. Machines based on cutting discs, saws and blades

These types of machines are characterized by being manual and versatile, their uses are not so industrial, since they are used more in civil construction projects, automobile workshops, or metal and welding workshops.


These machines are the most commonly used in civil works, since they mainly consist of a motor whose disk is located flat and parallel, thus allowing wide cuts to be made with high pressure thanks to the high revolutions in which the disk moves, whose material of construction is aluminum oxide. (Here you can learn about the different types of motors that are used for different devices).

Grinders are also used to polish soft metals, this is possible by simply changing the cutting disc for a softer disc or sandpaper, it is ideal for shaping thin metals.

4. Machines based on lathes and blades

Turning metal cutting machines for industrial parts

These machines work through a lathe, which rotates the piece at a considerable speed while a blade takes advantage of this rotation, affecting the surface of the metal, removing the first layer of material and finally giving the desired shape to the final product that you want to obtain. of the metal in question.

As mentioned above, metal turning machines are basically used to shape metal, that is why a large number of objects that we use in everyday life are made in these machines, we speak, for example, of screws, metal parts for the home , parts for automobiles such as sprockets, chains, among other elements. They are the result of many turns and a blade that finally gives them the shape.

As noted throughout the reading, metals are as versatile as the machines used to process them, that is why it is necessary to know what you want to achieve with the metal to be used, and why use that metal. . Having this clear information, we will know which is the machine that will best cut our metal and will deliver an ideal product with the results you expect.

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